Orthopaedic surgery or orthopaedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumours, and congenital disorders.
Orthopaedic surgeons are physicians who are medical doctors who have completed a college degree, medical school, and residency in orthopaedics. Additional orthopaedic sub-specialties include hand surgery, shoulder and elbow surgery, total joint reconstruction, paediatric orthopaedics, foot and ankle surgery, spine surgery, musculoskeletal oncology, surgical sports medicine and orthopaedic trauma. Orthopaedic surgeons perform a very broad range of surgical treatments, the most common of which include arthroscopy of knee and should joints, shoulder decompression, carpal tunnel release, knee chondroplasty, insertion and removal of support implants, knee anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, knee and hip replacement also known as arthroplasty, repair of fractures, and lower back intervertebral disc surgery.
Orthopaedic surgeons will also perform non-surgical treatments to treat and correct a variety of conditions. Manipulation and realignment of the musculoskeletal system can be achieved by via such means massage, manual manipulation or the longer term use of orthotics.Orthopaedic surgeons may work from a number of different hospital and clinics, in addition to their own practice or consulting rooms. Some orthopaedic surgeons have their practices attached to local or community medical centres, others will practice from dedicated consulting suites often attached to hospitals.